Wheat is the main body of summer grain production. Capturing a good harvest of summer wheat is the basis for increasing production throughout the year. Among them, Huang Huai wheat area is not only the dominant production area of high-quality and strong wheat, but also the frequent occurrence area of scab. In recent years, scab has occurred frequently and repeatedly, which has seriously threatened the development of China's wheat industry and the safety of rations. Since the national joint research on improved wheat varieties, the research team has focused on the major cutting-edge issues in China's main wheat production areas, guided and promoted the adjustment of the direction of China's wheat variety breeding, focused on the construction of the test platform for variety characteristics, assisted the breeding of new varieties with the application of modern breeding technology, and accelerated the renewal of green and high-quality wheat varieties.
In late May, the wheat research team carried out on-site demonstration and observation of Scab Resistant, high-quality and strong gluten wheat varieties in Shandong, Anhui and other places, intensively displayed and recommended a number of green and high-quality wheat varieties, and promoted the scientific research achievements to "take root".
Disease resistant varieties fight against "rotten wheat"
"Wheat scab was once the main disease in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, but in recent years, due to changes in farming methods and climate, the Huang Huai wheat area has gradually become a frequent area of scab diseases." On May 21, Xu Weigang, the chief expert of the national wheat variety research group, pointed out that under the rapid development of scab, the breeding of Scab Resistant Varieties in the Huang Huai wheat region is particularly urgent.
At present, wheat scab resistance breeding in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River is in a leading position in China and even the world. A series of scab resistance wheat varieties such as Yangmai, Ningmai and Zhenmai have been widely used in production. "In the wheat area in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, it is in the forefront of the world in terms of breeding of disease resistant varieties, mining of disease resistant genes, and application of molecular technology. However, in the Huang Huai wheat area, which is the main wheat producing area in China, breeding parent materials with Huang Huai ecological type are very scarce." Xu Weigang said that compared with the wheat areas in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the breeding of scab resistance in the Huang Huai wheat area seriously lags behind the market demand.
Therefore, the goal of the wheat research team is very clear. By establishing the research strategy of "looking for existing promoted varieties, screening in the breeding of new lines, and creating new varieties", we will screen and cultivate a number of Scab Resistant Varieties, realize the large-scale promotion and application in the Huang Huai wheat area, and steadily improve grain production capacity.
"There was no systematic identification nursery in Huang Huai wheat area before, and only Fujian and other places could be identified, but the disease pressure was too heavy, resulting in the identification of varieties' annihilation ', and it was difficult to distinguish resistance differences." Xu Weigang said that in order to solve this problem, the research team selected three identification nurseries in Nanyang, Henan, Yangzhou, Jiangsu and Lujiang, Anhui, and selected varieties from the Huang Huai wheat region as the control, appropriately relaxed the identification indicators, and "customized" the identification system for Scab Resistance in the Huang Huai wheat region, improving the level of resistance identification of breeding materials in the Huang Huai wheat region. Since the national major scientific research on improved wheat varieties was carried out, a batch of new Scab Resistant Varieties and breeding materials with the characteristics of Huang Huai ecological type have been screened out through 3930 wheat varieties (lines) and Germplasm Resources materials identified in the identification garden.
Because the incidence of scab is different every year, it is not accurate to judge the resistance of varieties only through the incidence of a certain year, resulting in the "miscalculation" of the resistance grade of many existing varieties. Following the idea of "looking for existing promoted varieties", the research team searched and re identified nationwide, selected a batch of wheat varieties with moderate resistance and susceptibility to scab, including Xinong 511, Ruihua Mai 520, Zhengmai 0943, and gave full play to the driving advantages of enterprises, promoting the large-scale application of these varieties in the Huang Huai wheat region.
"Molecular marker assisted selection breeding technology provides a new way for wheat scab resistance breeding." Mahongxiang, a wheat breeding expert from Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, said that in the breeding of wheat varieties resistant to scab, "it is difficult to create disease conditions, it is difficult to inoculate in one step, and it is difficult to identify the resistance grade" are the "three major problems" in the identification of varieties resistant to scab. The high-throughput molecular marker detection platform established by the research group has greatly accelerated the breeding process of Scab Resistant Varieties in Huang Huai wheat region.
In actual grain production, only one disease resistance is often difficult to meet the market demand. "In the process of disease resistance breeding, on the basis of taking scab as the main breeding goal, we should also pay attention to improving the comprehensive resistance of varieties." Kangzhensheng, academician of the Chinese Academy of engineering and professor of Northwest University of agriculture and forestry science and technology, added. It is understood that in addition to the basic "ability" of resistance to scab, the varieties participating in this exhibition often have other green and high-quality characteristics, such as Xinong 511, a strong gluten, heat-resistant and stripe rust resistant variety, Zhongmai 5051, a strong gluten and cold resistant water-saving variety, Su 4185, a cold, heat-resistant and powdery mildew resistant variety, and a series of high-quality varieties with multiple resistance, wide adaptability and good agronomic properties.
"The rapid incidence of scab has brought great pressure to the prevention and control work, and the breeding of disease resistant varieties is the fundamental guarantee for the realization of green plant protection." Kang Zhensheng said, "the occurrence of scab is affected by many factors such as cultivation conditions and climatic conditions. In addition to breeding disease resistant varieties, it also needs to pool scientific research forces in plant protection, cultivation and other fields to carry out joint research."
Industrialization of high-quality wheat begins with variety, and the key is "industrialization"
"The noodles made by Gaoyou 2018 are of good quality, with strong wheat flavor, the stability time of Gaoyou 5766 reaching 54 minutes, and the quality index of Jimai 44 is very prominent. Konong 2009 is not only of good quality, but also has the advantage of resistance to powdery mildew, stripe rust and other diseases..." on May 22, in the 1800 Mu high-quality wheat demonstration area located in yikongqiao village, Gaoli street, Hanting District, Weifang City, The 12 high-quality strong gluten wheat varieties and 27 high-quality strong gluten germplasm resources that are representative of the Huang Huai wheat region were intensively displayed. Wheat breeding experts, representatives of flour processing enterprises and seed dealers from all over the country stopped in the field to observe and comment.
With the deepening of agricultural supply side structural reform, the development of high-quality wheat has been paid more and more attention by society, breeding enterprises and breeding departments. The high-quality special-purpose wheat varieties approved by the state in 2018 increased by nearly 50% compared with three years ago, marking that China's wheat breeding research has stepped into a new stage of high yield, high quality and green on the basis of stable yield.
"For the research group of improved wheat varieties, the rapid development of China's high-quality wheat industry puts forward higher requirements for the breeding of high-quality strong gluten wheat varieties." Xu Weigang, the chief expert of the national wheat variety research group, pointed out that "producing high-quality products and creating brands" is the next work direction for the development of high-quality wheat industry.
"Different from the breeding of high-yield varieties, the breeding of high-quality wheat varieties should aim at regional layout, professional production, large-scale management and industrial development, and develop regional advantages into industrial advantages." Xu Weigang pointed out the key to the breeding of high-quality wheat varieties, "the research on improved varieties must not be limited to variety breeding, but also push varieties into actual production and integrate them into the development of the whole industrial chain."
On the same day, at the exhibition of high-quality strong gluten wheat varieties in the Huang Huai wheat region held in Weifang, Shandong Province, the crop institute of Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shandong Luyan Agricultural Seed Co., Ltd. and Shandong Luliang Group signed a strategic cooperation agreement on the high-quality wheat industry. Luyan company, Nanshan Group and Linyi Fumin wheat professional planting cooperative signed high-quality wheat order purchase and planting agreements respectively.
This is only a microcosm of the national key achievements in tackling improved wheat varieties. Shandong Luyan Agricultural Seed Co., Ltd. has successfully implemented China's first high-quality strong gluten wheat Jinan 17 order production in cooperation with Nanshan Group since the 1990s, breaking the ice in the development dilemma of China's high-quality wheat industry.
"Orders" have effectively promoted the production and industrialized management of high-quality special-purpose wheat, but there are also many problems in signing high-quality special-purpose wheat orders, among which the unstable quality and supply of wheat are the main reasons for the low performance rate. Zhouzhaoyang, general manager of the procurement department of Nanshan Group, said that due to the weather impact during the harvest, variety degradation, farmers' field management and other issues, the actual implementation rate is only 30-50% per year.
What is the key to the industrialization of high-quality wheat? "The industrialization of high-quality wheat is not only the industrialization of high-quality varieties, but also the industrialization of high-quality varieties." Zhao Zhendong, a consultant of the national wheat variety research group and an academician of the Chinese Academy of engineering, pointed out that "the development of high-quality wheat industrialization begins with varieties, but the focus is on 'industrialization'."
How to make high-quality varieties realize the leap of industrialization? How to solve the problem of low performance rate of order agriculture? Zhao Zhendong said that in addition to the variety itself, climate, soil and growers are the three major factors affecting the production of high-quality wheat. The construction of high-quality wheat production core base and field management technical services are important means to solve the problem of the development of China's high-quality wheat industry.
"We should speed up the cultivation of a number of new high-quality wheat varieties with independent intellectual property rights to ensure the absolute safety of rations." Sunhaoqin, deputy inspector of the Department of seed industry management of the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas, said, "by holding this exhibition and evaluation, we recommend high-quality special wheat varieties to the society, meet the high-quality and efficient flour processing industry and market demand, and play an important variety support for promoting the structural reform of agricultural supply side and improving the quality and efficiency of modern agriculture."